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Rubik's cube , google celebrate innovation of Rubik's cube

  • محمد الوليد






  • Rubik's cube , google celebrate innovation of Rubik's cube


    Rubik's cube , google celebrate innovation of Rubik's cube






    Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974[1][2] by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik. Originally called the Magic Cube,[3] the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Ideal Toy Corp. in 1980[4] via German businessman Tibor Laczi and Seven Towns founder Tom Kremer,[5] and won the German Game of the Year special award for Best Puzzle that year. As of January 2009, 350 million cubes had been sold worldwide[6][7] making it the world's top-selling puzzle game.[8][9] It is widely considered to be the world's best-selling toy.[10]
    In a classic Rubik's Cube, each of the six faces is covered by nine stickers, each of one of six solid colours (white, red, blue, orange, green, and yellow; in currently sold models, white is opposite yellow, blue is opposite green, and orange is opposite red, and the red, white and blue are arranged in that order in a clockwise arrangement).[11] An internal pivot mechanism enables each face to turn independently, thus mixing up the colours. For the puzzle to be solved, each face must be returned to consisting of one colour. Similar puzzles have now been produced with various numbers of sides, dimensions, and stickers, not all of them by Rubik.
    Although the Rubik's Cube reached its height of mainstream popularity in the 1980s, it is still widely known and used. Many speedcubers continue to practice it and other twisty puzzles and compete for the fastest times in various categories. Since 2003, The World Cube Association, the Rubik's Cube's international governing body, has organized competitions and kept the official world records.


    In the mid-1970s, Ernő Rubik worked at the Department of Interior Design at the Academy of Applied Arts and Crafts in Budapest.[13] Although it is widely reported that the Cube was built as a teaching tool to help his students understand 3D objects, his actual purpose was solving the structural problem of moving the parts independently without the entire mechanism falling apart. He did not realize that he had created a puzzle until the first time he scrambled his new Cube and then tried to restore it.[14] Rubik obtained Hungarian patent HU170062 for his "Magic Cube" in 1975. Rubik's Cube was first called the Magic Cube (Bűvös kocka) in Hungary. The puzzle had not been patented internationally within a year of the original patent. Patent law then prevented the possibility of an international patent. Ideal wanted at least a recognizable name to trademark; of course, that arrangement put Rubik in the spotlight because the Magic Cube was renamed after its inventor in 1980.
    The first test batches of the Magic Cube were produced in late 1977 and released in Budapest toy shops. Magic Cube was held together with interlocking plastic pieces that prevented the puzzle being easily pulled apart, unlike the magnets in Nichols's design. In September 1979, a deal was signed with Ideal to release the Magic Cube worldwide, and the puzzle made its international debut at the toy fairs of London, Paris, Nuremberg and New York in January and February 1980.
    After its international debut, the progress of the Cube towards the toy shop ****ves of the West was briefly halted so that it could be manufactured to Western safety and packaging specifications. A lighter Cube was produced, and Ideal decided to rename it. "The Gordian Knot" and "Inca Gold" were considered, but the company finally decided on "Rubik's Cube", and the first batch was exported from Hungary in May 1980. Taking advantage of an initial shortage of Cubes, many imitations and variations appeared.
    Patents

    Nichols assigned his patent to his employer Moleculon Research Corp., which sued Ideal in 1982. In 1984, Ideal lost the patent infringement suit and appealed. In 1986, the appeals court affirmed the judgment that Rubik's 2×2×2 Pocket Cube infringed Nichols's patent, but overturned the judgment on Rubik's 3×3×3 Cube.[15]
    Even while Rubik's patent application was being processed, Terutoshi Ishigi, a self-taught engineer and ironworks owner near Tokyo, filed for a Japanese patent for a nearly identical mechanism, which was granted in 1976 (Japanese patent publication JP55-008192). Until 1999, when an amended Japanese patent law was enforced, Japan's patent office granted Japanese patents for non-disclosed technology within Japan without requiring worldwide novelty.[16][17] Hence, Ishigi's patent is generally accepted as an independent reinvention at that time.[18][19][20]
    Rubik applied for more patents in 1980, including another Hungarian patent on October 28. In the United States, Rubik was granted U.S. Patent 4,378,116 on March 29, 1983, for the Cube. Today the trademark for the image and the three-dimensional object is assigned to Seven Towns Inc,[21] which is also a licensee of the copyright of the Rubik's Cube puzzle.[22]
    Greek inventor Panagiotis Verdes patented[23] a method of creating cubes beyond the 5×5×5, up to 11×11×11, in 2003 although he claims he originally thought of the idea around 1985.[24] As of June 19, 2008, the 5×5×5, 6×6×6, and 7×7×7 models are in production in his "V-Cube" line. V-Cube also produces a 2×2×2, 3×3×3 and a 4x4x4.
    Many Chinese companies produce copies of, and in some cases improvements upon, the Rubik and V-Cube designs. The most popular are Bao Daqing's DaYan company, who make the GuHong and ZhanChi and now PanShi models, amongst others. Although their legality is questionable, they are often preferred over the originals by expert speed cubers because of their ease of movement.[25]




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تابع ايضا
صور مكعب روبيك للواتس اب 2014 , أحلى صور لمكعب روبيك 2014 Rubik's Cube
بالصور طريقة حل لغز مكعب روبيك 2014 , كيفية حل لغز Rubik's Cube
صور رمزيات مكعب روبيك 2014 , خلفيات مكعب روبيك 2014 , Rubik's Cube
مكعب روبيك 2014 , معلومات عن مكعب روبيك 2014 Rubik's Cube


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